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About Indo-Burma Regional Program

Encompassing more than 2 million square kilometers of tropical Asia, Indo-Burma is one of the most threatened of Earth’s 36 biodiversity hotspots. Only 5 percent of its natural habitat remains in relatively pristine condition.

The region is still revealing its biological treasures. Six large mammal species have been discovered in just the last two decades. Among them is saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), an enigmatic forest bovid, which inhabits the Annamite mountains of Lao PDR and Vietnam, and is the flagship species for conservation in the hotspot. This hotspot holds a remarkable diversity of tortoise and freshwater turtle species, most of which are threatened with extinction due to over-harvesting and extensive habitat loss. Bird life is also diverse, with more than 1,200 different species.

The combination of economic development and increasing human population is placing unprecedented pressure on the hotspot’s natural capital. The large portion of the population living in rural areas and high levels of poverty throughout mean that natural resources, particularly those of forests, freshwater wetlands and coastal habitats, form a critical component of livelihood strategies for many of the hotspot’s inhabitants. Consequently, poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation are inextricably linked.

Our support focuses on Cambodia, Lao P.D.R., Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam, as well as parts of southern China. Investments are targeted at five priority geographies: the Sino-Vietnamese Limestone, Mekong River and Major Tributaries, Tonle Sap Lake and Inundation Zone, and Hainan Mountains biodiversity conservation corridors, plus Myanmar.​​​​​

Biodiversity conservation corridors – (1) Sino-Vietnamese Limestone, (2) Mekong River and major tributaries, (3) Tonle Sap Lake and inundation zone, and (4) Hainan Mountains.

The Sino-Vietnamese Limestone corridor, spanning China and Vietnam, is particularly important for the conservation of primates. It is also of global importance for plant conservation, supporting many unique species and the hotspot’s richest assemblages of conifer species. The Mekong River and Major Tributaries corridor stretches across Cambodia, Lao P.D.R. and Thailand and represents some of the best examples of lowland riverine ecosystems remaining in the hotspot. The Tonle Sap Lake and Inundation Zone corridor provides critical breeding, spawning and feeding habitats for many species of migratory fish, including several globally threatened species. The Hainan Mountains corridor supports high levels of endemism, particularly in plants, and is one of the most threatened parts of the hotspot, due to rapidly intensifying development threats.

Seventy-four key biodiversity areas within these corridors are priorities for investment. One hundred and four globally threatened animal species and 48 globally threatened plant species are also priorities.

Indo-Burma Conservation Outcomes Map

Please click on the image to enlarge


  1. Indo-Burma Ecosystem Profile (2011) English
  2. Indo-Burma Ecosystem Profile Summary (2011) English
  3. Indo-Burma Ecosystem Profile Summary (2011) Chinese
  4. Final Assessment Report (2014) English

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